World War II casualties

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Piechart showing percentage of military and civilian deaths by alliance during World War II.

World War II was the single deadliest conflict the world has ever seen, causing many tens of millions of deaths. The tables below provide a detailed country-by-country count of death by side.

Combined total[edit]

The total estimated human loss of life caused by World War II, irrespective of political alignment, was roughly 62 million people. The civilian toll was around 37 million, the military toll about 25 million. The Allies lost around 51 million people, and the Axis lost 11 million. (Note that some Axis countries switched sides and reentered the war on the side of the Allies; those nations are included in the Allied count, regardless of when the deaths occurred.) There was a disproportionate loss of life and property; some nations had a higher casualty rate than others, due to a number of factors including military tactics, crimes against humanity, economic preparedness and the level of technology. There has also been some people who have died or been wounded by Technology or weapons still active to this day Such as landmines,mortors or shells. As a example is in the late weeks of April 2009 A German Citizen by first name of Tobias had stepped on what was to be a dead landmine in a german mesuem and it severed his leg which would make him the last casualties of WW2

Casualties by country[edit]

The casualties of World War II were suffered disproportionately by the various participants. This is especially true regarding civilian casualties. The following chart gives data on the casualties suffered by each country, along with population information to show the relative impact of losses.

Country Population 1939 Military deaths Civilian deaths Jewish Holocaust deaths Total deaths Deaths/ % of population
Albania[1] 1,100,000 28,000 200 28,200 2.56%
Australia[2] 7,000,000 40,400 100 40,500 0.58%
Austria[3] 7,000,000 45,000 65,000 110,000 1.57%
Belgium[4] 8,400,000 12,100 52,000 24,000 88,100 1.05%
Brazil[5] 41,500,000 1,000 1,000 2,000 0.00%
Bulgaria[6] 6,300,000 22,000 22,000 0.35%
Burma[7] 17,500,000 60,000 60,000 0.34%
Canada[8] 11,300,000 45,300 45,300 0.4%
China[9] 530,000,000 3,000,000 7,000,000 10,000,000 1.89%
Cuba[10] 4,300,000 100 100 0.00%
Czechoslovakia[11] 15,300,000 25,000 63,000 277,000 365,000 2.39%
Denmark[12] 3,800,000 1,300 1,800 100 3,200 0.08%
Estonia[13] 1,100,000 40,000 1,000 41,000 3.73%
Ethiopia[14] 14,100,000 5,000 200,000 205,000 1.45%
Finland[15] 3,700,000 95,000 2,000 97,000 2.62%
France[16] 41,700,000 212,000 267,000 83,000 562,000 1.35%
French Indo-China[17] 24,600,000 1,000,000 1,000,000 4.07%
Germany[18][19][20] 69,300,000 5,500,000 1,840,000 160,000 7,500,000 10.82%
Greece[21] 7,200,000 20,000 209,000 71,000 300,000 4.17%
Hungary[22] 9,200,000 300,000 80,000 200,000 580,000 6.3%
Iceland[23] 120,000 200 200 0.17%
India[24] 386,000,000 87,000 1,500,000 1,587,000 0.41%
Indonesia[25] 70,500,000 4,000,000 4,000,000 5.67%
Iran[26] 14,000,000 200 200 0.00%
Iraq[27] 3,700,000 1,000 1,000 0.03%
Ireland[28] 4,250,000 100 100 0.00%
Italy[29] 43,800,000 306,400 145,100 8,000 459,500 1.05%
Japan[30] 72,000,000 2,000,000 600,000 2,600,000 3.61%
Korea[31] 23,400,000 60,000 60,000 0.26%
Latvia[32] 2,000,000 147,000 80,000 227,000 11.35%
Lithuania[33] 2,500,000 212,000 141,000 353,000 14.12%
Luxembourg[34] 300,000 1,000 1,000 2,000 0.67%
Malaya[35] 5,500,000 100,000 100,000 1.82%
Malta[36] 300,000 1,500 1,500 0.5%
Mexico[37] 19,800,000 100 100 0.00%
Mongolia[38] 700,000 300 300 0.04%
Netherlands[39] 8,700,000 7,900 92,000 106,000 205,900 2.37%
Newfoundland[40] 300,000 1,000 100 1,100 0.37%
New Zealand[41] 1,600,000 11,900 11,900 0.74%
Norway[42] 2,900,000 3,000 5,800 700 9,500 0.33%
Philippines[43] 16,400,000 57,000 90,000 147,000 0.9%
Pacific Islands[44] 1,900,000 57,000 57,000 3.0%
Poland[45] 34,800,000 400,000 2,200,000 3,000,000 5,600,000 16.09%
Portuguese Timor[46] 500,000 55,000 55,000 11.0%
Romania[47] 19,900,000 316,000 56,000 469,000 841,000 4.23%
Singapore[48] 700,000 50,000 50,000 7.14%
South Africa[49] 10,300,000 11,900 11,900 0.12%
Soviet Union[50] 168,500,000 10,700,000 11,500,000 1,000,000 23,200,000 13.77%
Spain[51] 25,500,000 4,500 4,500 0.02%
Sweden[52] 6,400,000 0.00%
Switzerland[53] 4,200,000 100 100 0.00%
Thailand[54] 15,300,000 5,600 5,600 0.04%
United Kingdom[55] 47,800,000 382,600 67,800 450,400 0.94%
United States[56] 132,000,000 407,300 11,200 418,500 0.32%
Yugoslavia[57] 15,400,000 446,000 514,000 67,000 1,027,000 6.67%
Totals 1,986,370,000 24,456,700 32,327,000 5,754,000 62,537,700 3.17%


  • Population in 1939 - Sources: Vadim Erlikman. Poteri narodonaseleniia v XX veke : spravochnik. Moscow 2004(P.141-149). ISBN 5-93165-107-1. and Population Statistics[58]
  • Military Deaths - Losses include deaths of regular military forces from combat as well as non combat causes. Whenever possible the losses of Irregular military, Partisan (military) and Paramilitary forces have been included with military losses. The deaths of prisoners of war-POW in captivity and personnel missing in action are also included with military losses. The armed forces of the various nations are treated as single entities, for example deaths of Americans serving in the RAF are included with the UK; Austrians, Soviets and French in the Wehrmacht are included with German military losses, the exception being China because some factions supported the Japanese. Prisoner of war deaths in Nazi captivity totaled 3.1 Million[17,Table A] and in Japanese captivity 540,000[4,Chap3]
  • Civilian Deaths - Includes civilian losses from military action and war related deaths caused by famine and disease; deaths due to the Nazi Holocaust which totaled 12.1 million, plus 5.7 million Jewish Holocaust victims that are listed separately [17,Table A]. Victims of Japanese war crimes totaling 5.4 million [4, Chap.3]and deaths related to the Soviet annexations in 1939-40. Civilian losses in the postwar era ( 1946-47) due to famine and disease are not included with these losses.
  • Jewish Holocaust Deaths - Source: Martin Gilbert, Atlas of the Holocaust 1988, P.244 ISBN 0-688-12364-3
  • Sources - The footnotes list the details of the losses and their sources.

Casualties by alliance[edit]

Allied Military personnel killed, percentage by country.
Axis Military personnel killed, percentage by country.

Casualties by branch of service[edit]

Country Branch of service Number served Killed/missing Wounded Prisoner of war Killed per 1,000 served Percent killed
Germany Army[6,333-335] 13,600,000 4,202,000 309.0 30.9%
Air Force[6,333-335] 2,500,000 433,000 173.2 17.32%
Navy [6,333-335] 1,200,000 138,000 115.0 11.5%
Waffen SS[6,333-335] 900,000 314,000 349.0 34.9%
Volkssturm and Police[6,333-335] 231,000
Soviet citizens in German military service[7,278][24] 215,000
Unidentified by branch of service (see note below) 6,035,000[7,276] 11,100,000[6,286]
Japan[1,254] Army 6,300,000 1,526,000 85,600 30,000 242.2 24.22%
Navy 2,100,000 414,900 8,900 10,000 197.6 19.76%
Soviet Union 1941-45 All branches of service[7,85-87] 34,476,700 8,668,400 14,685,593 4,059,000 251 25.1%
Soviet Union 1939-40 All branches of service[7,51-80] 136,945 205,924
Conscripted Reservists (see note below) [3,13-14] 1,500,000 1,200,000
Paramilitary and Soviet partisan units[3,20-21] 400,000
British Commonwealth[19][18] [29] All branches of service 11,115,000 580,000 475,000 318,000 52.2
United States[59] Army 11,260,000 318,274 565,861 28.0 2.8%
United States Army Air Forces(included in Army)[1,254] 3,400,000 54,700 17,900 16.1 1.61%
Navy 4,183,446 62,614 37,778 15.0 1.5%
Marine Corps 669,100 24,511 68,207 29.3 2.93%
United States Coast Guard [16,584] 241,093 1,917 7.8 0.78%
Unidentified by branch of service [60] 130,201



  1. The number killed in action was 2.3 million; died of wounds, disease or accidents 550,000; missing in action and unaccounted for after the war 2.0 million.[6,335]; and 459,000 POW deaths, of whom 77,000 where in the custody of the U.S., UK and France; POW dead includes 266,000 in the post war period after June 1945 , primarily in Soviet captivity.[6,239 & 286]
  2. The number of wounded includes 1,600,000 permanently disabled which was listed in Geschichte Des Zweiten Weltkrieges A.G. Plotz 1960. P. 81


  1. The official recorded military war dead from 1941-45 were 8,668,400 comprising 6,329,600 combat related deaths, 555,500 non combat deaths.[7,85]., 500,000 missing in action and 1,283,300 POWs.[7,236]. Figures include Navy losses of 154,771.[7,86]
  2. Casualties in 1939-40 include the following dead and missing, Battle of Khalkhin Gol in 1939 (8,931); Invasion of Poland of 1939 (1,139); Winter War with Finland (1939-40) (126,875).[7,51-80]
  3. The number of wounded includes 2,576,000 permanently disabled.[7,91]
  4. The number of Soviet POW who survived the war was 2,776,000.[7,85]
  5. Conscripted reservists is an estimate of men called up, primarily in 1941, who were killed in battle or died as POWs before being listed on active strength.[3,13-14]
  6. Estimated total military war dead including missing in action, POWs and Soviet partisans range from 8.6 to 10.6 million [3,20-21]

British Commonwealth

  1. Number served- UK& Colonies(5,896,000); India ( 2,582,000), Australia(993,000); Canada(1,100,000); South Africa(250,000); New Zealand(295,000). [1,253-254] and[61]
  2. Total war related deaths reported by the Commonwealth War Graves Commission -UK& Colonies(383,038); India ( 86,838), Australia(40,376); Canada(45,363); South Africa(11,837); New Zealand(11,928))[22].
  3. Wounded-UK& Colonies(284,049); India ( 64,354), Australia(39,803); Canada(53,174); South Africa(14,363); New Zealand(19,314)[19][18][20]
  4. Prisoner of war - UK& Colonies(180,488); India ( 79,481), Australia(26,358); Canada(9,334); South Africa(14,750); New Zealand(8,415)[19][18][20]


  1. Battle deaths were 292,131, Army 234,874, Navy 36,950, Marine Corps 19,733, Coast Guard 574, and United States Army Air Forces(included in Army 49,112)[16,584]
  2. The United States Coast Guard was a branch of the U.S. Armed Forces during World War Two.
  3. The United States Merchant Marine war dead of 9,512 are included with civilian losses [62].
  4. During World War Two 1.2 million African Americans served in the Armed Forces and 708 were killed in combat. 350,000 American women served in the military during World War Two and 16 were killed in action.[16,584-585]


  1.  Albania
    War dead listed here are from Albania : a country study Federal Research Division, Library of Congress ; edited by Raymond E. Zickel and Walter R. Iwaskiw. 2nd ed. 1994 ISBN 0-8444-0792-5. Available online at Federal Research Division of the U.S. Library of Congress, go to 'Country Studies-Albania' -Chapter 5: Sec-World War Two. However, V. Erlikman, a Russian historian, estimates total war dead were 55,000, including 20,000 Partisan (military).[3,37] Jewish Holocaust victims totaled 200.[14,244]
  2.  Australia
    The war dead listed here are those reported by the Commonwealth War Graves Commission[29]. Total deaths were 40,463 which included Army (26,516), Air Force (11,105), Navy (2,315), Merchant Navy (440), unidentified by branch of service (1), and civilian deaths (86). These losses include war related deaths during 1946-47 (1,731)[22] Details can be found at the Australian War Memorial website article, Australian Military Statistics: WWII - A Global Perspective. The preliminary 1945 data for Australian losses was killed 23,365, missing 6,030, wounded 39,803 and POW 26,363.[20]
  3.  Austria
    Military war dead of 260,749 are included with Germany.[6,335] Civilian war dead included 24,000 killed by military operations, including Allied Strategic Bombing.[2,37-42]and 10,000 victims of Nazi political persecution from 1939 to 1945,[17,Table A]the genocide of Roma people of 6,500 persons [13,183]and Jewish Holocaust victims totaling 65,000.[14,244]
  4.  Belgium
    Military war dead included 8,800 killed, 500 missing in action, 200 executed, 800 resistance movement fighters and 1,800 POWs. Civilian losses included deaths due to military operations of 32,200 and 16,900 victims of Nazi reprisals and repression.[2,43-45] Losses of about 10,000 in the German Armed Forces are not included in these figures.[6,230] The genocide of Roma people was 500 persons.[13,183]Jewish Holocaust victims totaled 24,387.[14,244]
  5.  Brazil
    The Brazilian Expeditionary Force war dead were 510[1,255], Navy losses in the Battle of the Atlantic were 492. Civilian losses due to attacks on merchant shipping were 470 merchant mariners and 502 passengers.[16,540]
  6.  Bulgaria
    Bulgarian military war dead were as follows, with Axis in Yugoslavia 2,000, anti-fascist-Partisan (military) units 10,000 and with USSR in the End of World War II in Europe 10,000[3,38-39]
  7.  Burma
    R. J. Rummel estimate of deaths due forced labor and famine during Japanese occupation. Rummel cites sources that range between 60-100,000 dead. [4,Chap.3]However, the Russian historian Vadim Erlikman estimates Burmese losses at 1.1 million based on a 1962 Soviet source. The breakdown is as follows, military deaths of 30,000 ( including 22,000 with the pro-Japanese Burma National Army ), Civilian losses of 20,000 in military action, 370,000 due to Japanese war crimes and 700,000 due to famine and disease. [3,74-75]
  8.  Canada
    The war dead listed here are those reported by the Commonwealth War Graves Commission[29]. Total deaths were 45,365 which included Army (24,530), Air Force (17,394), Navy (2,169), Merchant Navy (1,270), unidentified by branch of service(1), and civilian deaths(2). These losses include war related deaths during 1946-47 (1,298)[22] TheCanadian War Museum.[63] website has a narrative of Canada's role in the war. The preliminary 1945 data for Canadian losses was killed 37,476, missing 1,843, wounded 53,174 and POW 9,045.[20]
  9.  China
    Second Sino-Japanese War dead is estimated by John W. Dower at 10 million including 3.2 million Chinese Nationalist military[9,295-296]. These losses are casualties directly related to the Second Sino-Japanese War but not including losses due to internal conflict, famines and floods. Total Chinese losses are difficult to estimate due to the fact that there was no census of the population taken prior to the war. Sources that range from 10.6 to 37 million total Chinese war dead were cited by R. J. Rummel [5,Table 5A]. His estimate of total war dead from 1937-45 is 19,605,000. The details are as follows: Military- 3,400,000 Nationalist/Communist and 432,000 Chinese forces collaborating with Japan. Civilian deaths during the Second Sino-Japanese War were 3,252,000 and an additional 56,000 deaths due to internal clashes. Victims of repression and atrocities: Japanese war crimes 3,949,000 (including 400,000 POWs); Chinese Nationalist repression 5,907,000 (including 3,081,000 military conscripts); by Chinese Communists 250,000 and by Warlords 110,000. Deaths due to famine were given as 2,250,000.[5,Table 5A].
  10.  Cuba
    Cuba lost 5 merchant ships and 79 dead merchant mariners[16,540] The Cuban sub chaser CS-13 sank U-176 on May 15,1943.[64][65]
  11.  Czechoslovakia
    Military war dead included Czechoslovak Forces with the western allies who lost 3,220; Czechoslovak military units on Eastern front 4,570; Slovak Republic (WWII) Axis forces 7,000; and Partisan (military) losses of 10,000.[3,54]Does not include an additional estimated 30,000 dead in Hungarian Army.[8,58-59] Civilian losses include the territories of prewar Czechoslovakia, including Carpathian Ruthenia which was ceded to the USSR after the war. The genocide of Roma people was 7,500 persons.[13,183-184]Jewish Holocaust victims totaled 277,000.[14,244]
  12.  Denmark
    Military war dead include 1,281 Navy/Merchant Marine and 50 Army deaths during the occupation. Civilian deaths include 617 victims of Nazi reprisals and 1,224 killed during military operations. The 3,900 Danish deaths in German military service are included with German losses. Figures are from Danish Military Historie website[66] Deaths of Jewish Holocaust victims totaled 77.[14,244]
  13.  Estonia
    Includes civilian losses due to war(35,000) and Soviet occupation(6,000) in 1940-41. Does not include military dead with Soviet(10,000) and German Armed Forces(15,000).[3,35] The genocide of Roma people was 1,000 persons.[13,183]Jewish Holocaust victims totaled 1,000.[14,244]
  14.  Ethiopia
    R. J. Rummel estimates 200,000 killed by the Italians during the Second Italo-Abyssinian War and Italian occupation of 1936-41, his estimate is " based on Discovery TV Cable Channel Program "Timewatch" 1/17/92.[4,Chap.14]However, the official Ethiopian government report lists 760,000 total dead due Italian occupation from 1935-41. Italy's War Crimes in Ethiopia- 1946 (reprinted 2000), p.112, ISBN 0-9679479-0-1.
  15.  Finland
    Figures include killed and missing from the Winter War and Continuation War with the Soviet Union as well as action against German forces in 1944-45, Winter War (1939-40) losses were 22,830, military deaths from 1941-44 were 58,715[28] and 1,036[28] in 1944-45 in the Lapland War The Finnish Defense Forces website lists the names of the 95,000 Finnish military war dead [67] During the Winter war of 1939-40 the Swedish Volunteer Corps served alongside the Finns and lost 28 men in combat. 1,407 Finnish volunteers served in the German SS-Volunteer Battalion Nordost and 256 were killed in action.[68] Jewish Holocaust victims totaled 11.[14,244]
  16.  France
    Military war dead include 150,000 regular forces(1939-40 Battle of France 92,000; 1940-45 on Western Front (World War II) 58,000); 20,000 French resistance fighters and 40,000 POWs in Germany. French deaths in German Army (30-40,000), mostly men conscripted in Alsace-Lorraine, are not included in these totals. Civilian losses include 120,000 killed due to military action and 230,000 victims of the Nazi reprisals and genocide.[2,60-65] The pro-German Vichy France forces lost 2,653 killed.[16,582] Vadim Erlikman, a Russian historian, estimates losses of Africans in the French Colonial Forces at about 22,000.[3,83-99] The genocide of Roma people was 15,000 persons.[13,183]Jewish Holocaust victims totaled 83,000.[14,244]
  17.  French Indochina
    Deaths due to Vietnamese Famine of 1945 during Japanese occupation[9,297]
  18.  Germany
    The January 1939 Population is Germany within 1937 borders and the Free City of Danzig. Austria and the 7,100,000 million ethnic Germans of eastern Europe are not included in the German population[69]. However, the 500,000 military and 400,000 civilian deaths of ethnic Germans in eastern Europe are included with total German losses, after the war 5 million became refugees in Germany and Austria.[23,16-36]
  19.  Dr. Rűdiger Overmans of the German Military History Office in Potsdam has provided a reassessment of German military war dead based on a statistical analysis of German military personnel records. Overmans concluded that these losses were 5.3 Million rather the previous balance 4.6 million. Total German losses did not change, 360,000 were previously listed as civilian losses in eastern Europe and 230,000 as paramilitary, Volkssturm or police forces fighting with the regular forces. Overmans lists the following losses- Africa 16,066; the Balkans 103,693; Northern Europe 30,165; Western Europe until 12/31/44- 339,957; Italy 150,660; against the U.S.S.R. until 12/31/44- 2,742,909; final battles in Germany during 1945-1,230,045; other ( including air war in Germany & at sea ) 245,561; POWs 459,475- Grand Total 5.318 million. Overmans lists losses of 4,450,000 from pre-war Germany, 261,000 from Austria, 530,000 ethnic Germans from eastern Europe, 30,0000 French and 30,000 volunteers from western Europe. Included in the total of 5.3 Million war dead are 2.0 Million men listed as missing in action or unaccounted for after the war.[6,333-336] For a critical analysis of the statistical methodology of Overmans see [70] In addition to these losses the Oberkommando der Wehrmacht reported the losses of Soviet citizens serving in the German military [24]separately, these losses were not included in the Overmans analysis of German casualties.[6,228-230]. A Russian source, G. I. Krivosheev reported these losses as 215,000[7,278]. In this schedule they are included with German military war dead.
  20.   Civilian war dead include 360-370,000 killed by Allied Strategic bombing within the 1937 German boundaries[25,460]. About 500,000 victims of Nazi persecution and genocide from 1939 to 1945 including 300,000 political prisoners, victims of the Action T4 euthanasia program, Gay men and 160,000 German Jews .[17,Table A]Rűdiger Overmans estimates 1,100,000 German civilian dead ( 690,000 from Germany and 410,000 ethnic Germans of eastern Europe) as the result of Red Army atrocities and the expulsion of Germans after World War II[6,298-299]. Postwar deaths of about 500,000 due to famine and 270,000 deaths due to Forced labor of Germans in the Soviet Union[23,33] are not included in these losses The genocide of Roma people was 15,000 persons.[13,183] Jewish Holocaust victims totaled 160,000.[14,244]
  21.  Greece
    The war dead listed here are those reported by G. Frumkin which included 20,000 military deaths in the Greco-Italian War of 1940-41, 60,000 civilians, 80,000 deportees and 140,000 famine deaths during the Axis occupation of Greece during World War II.[2,89-91] However, V. Erlikman a Russian historian lists losses of 435,000. Military- 20,000 killed in the Greco-Italian War of 1940-41, 10,000 POWs and 30,000 Greek Resistance fighters. Civilian- 10,000 killed due to military action; 155,000 deaths due Nazi reprisals and genocide; and 210,000 famine deaths.[3,43-44] Jewish Holocaust victims totaled 71,301.[14,244]
  22.  Hungary
    Tamás Stark of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences has provided the following assessment of Hungarian war dead from 1941-45. Military losses were 300,000-310,000 including 110-120,000 killed in battle and 200,000 missing in action and POW in the Soviet Union. Hungarian military losses include 110,000 men who were conscripted in Slovakia, Romania and Yugoslavia and the deaths of 20-25,000 Jews conscripted for Army labor units. Civilian losses of 280,000 included 45,500 killed in the 1944-45 military campaign and in air attacks.[8,58-60] The genocide of Roma people was 28,000 persons.[13,188]Jewish Holocaust victims totaled 200,000.[14,244].
  23.  Iceland
    Confirmed losses of civilian sailors due to German attacks and mines.[26]
  24.  India
    1939 Population includes present day India, Pakistan and Bangladesh. The war dead listed here are those reported by the Commonwealth War Graves Commission[29]. Total deaths were 87,040 which included Army (79,326), Air Force (897), Navy (501), Merchant Navy (6,114), unidentified by branch of service(9), and civilian deaths(193). These losses include war related deaths during 1946-47 (8,522)[22]The preliminary 1945 data for Indian losses was, killed 24,338, missing 11,754, wounded 64,354 and POW 79,489.[20]The pro-Japanese Indian National Army lost 2,615 dead and missing[16,556].
    Civilian losses were caused by the Bengal famine of 1943.[4, Chap 3][9,297]
  25.  Indonesia-Dutch East Indies
    John W. Dower cites a UN report listing 4 million famine and forced labor dead during the Japanese Occupation of Indonesia including 30,000 European civilian internee deaths[9,296] .
  26.  Iran
    Losses during allied occupation in 1941.[16,498].
  27.  Iraq
    Losses during Anglo-Iraqi War and UK occupation in 1941.[3,65][16,498].
  28.  Ireland
    Despite being neutral, Ireland suffered casualties. In 1995 Irish Prime Minister John Bruton claimed at least 10,000 Irish were killed serving in the British or Commonwealth armed forces. The civilian death figure includes 33 Irish merchantmen were killed when a U-Boat torpedoed the Irish Pine, and deaths caused by the presumably accidental bombing of Ireland in three instances[27]
  29.  Italy
    Morti E Dispersi Per Cause Belliche Negli Anni 1940-45 the official accounting of Italian losses by the Roma:Instituto Centrale Statistica in 1957 detailed Italian military and civilian dead and missing, pp.3-27. Total military dead and missing from 1940-45 were 291,376, losses prior to the September 8, 1943 Armistice with Italy totaled 204,346 ( killed 66,686, missing 111,579, died of disease 26,081), after the September 8, 1943 Armistice with Italy, 87,030 (killed 42,916, missing 19,840 died of disease 24,274). Losses by branch of service: Army 201,405; Navy 22,034; Air Force 9,096; Colonial Forces 354; Chaplains 91; Fascist militia 10,066; Paramilitary 3,252; not indicated 45,078. Military Losses by theatre of war: Italy 74,725 (37,573 post armistice); France 2,060 (1,039 post armistice); Germany 25,430 (24,020 post armistice); Greece, Albania & Yugoslavia 49,459 (10,090 post armistice); USSR 82,079 (3,522 post armistice); Africa 22,341 (1,565 post armistice), at sea 28,438 (5,526 post armistice); other & unknown 6,844 (3,695 post armistice). POW losses are included with military losses mentioned above. Civilian losses were 153,147 ( 123,119 post armistice) including 61,432 (42,613 post armistice) in air attacks. A brief summary of data from this report can be found online at -[71](go to Vol 13, No. 15). There were in addition to these losses the deaths of African soldiers conscripted by Italy which were 15,000 in East African Campaign of 1940-41.[16,491]. Included in the losses are 64,000 victims of Nazi reprisals and genocide including 30,000 POWs [17, Table A]. Losses included Italian war prisoners in Soviet Union 1942-1954 of 28,000 [3,47] Military losses in Italy after the September 1943 Armistice with Italy, included 5,927 with the Allies, 17,488 Italian resistance movement fighters and 13,000 RSI Italian Social Republic Fascist forces[72] The genocide of Roma people was 1,000 persons.[13,183]Jewish Holocaust victims totaled 8,562. (including Libya)[14,244]
  30.  Japan
    1939 Japanese population includes 1.7 million Japanese in China and Korea.[15,15] John W. Dower lists Japanese government data on military dead which includes 185,647 in China from 1937-41 and 1,555,308 from 1941-45 in the Pacific War. Army - Against US- 485,717; Against UK/Netherlands-208,026; In China-202,958; Against Australia -199,511; French Indochina -2,803; Against USSR -7,483; Other overseas -23,388; Japan proper -10,543. Navy 1941/45 -414,879. Total military deaths -1,740,955. These figures do not include an additional 300,000 missing POWs and civilians in the USSR and China who were never accounted for after the war. One third of military deaths were combat related, the remainder due to illness and starvation. Civilian losses include 393,000 dead due to U. S. Strategic bombing including 210,000 killed in the Atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. In addition to these deaths 150,000 civilians were killed on Okinawa and 10,000 on Saipan during the fighting.[9,297-299]These figures include post war deaths of civilians injured in the Atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki estimated at 110,000.[3,81] However, the Yasukuni Shrine in Japan lists a total of 2,325,128 war related deaths from 1937-1945 including civilians employed by the government, Chinese(Taiwan) and Koreans in the Japanese Armed Forces . War related deaths of Japanese merchant marine personnel were 27,000.[16,578] Total civilian deaths in 1945 on the Japanese home islands exceeded the prewar level by approximately 900,000.[15,29-30] Not included in Japanese war dead are 432,000 Wang Jingwei and Manchukuo Chinese military forces collaborating with Japan.[5,Table 5A]
  31.  Korea
    John W. Dower estimates 70,000 conscripted Korean laborers and soldiers dead in Korea under Japanese rule during World War Two including 10-15,000 killed in the Atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki [9,297]Korean losses in the Japanese Army are included with Japan's losses. V. Erlikman, a Russian historian, estimates these losses at 10,000 of the 100,000 Koreans in Japanese military service.[3,71-72]
  32.  Latvia
    Includes civilian losses due to war (220,000) and Soviet occupation in 1940-41(7,000). Does not include military dead with Soviet(10,000) and German Armed Forces (15,000).[3,28]The genocide of Roma people was 2,500 persons.[13,183]Jewish Holocaust victims totaled 80,000[14,244]
  33.  Lithuania
    Includes civilian losses due to war (345,00) and Soviet occupation in 1940-41(8,000). Does not include military dead with Soviet (15,000) and German Armed Forces (5,000).[3,29] The genocide of Roma people was 1,000 persons.[13,183]Jewish Holocaust victims totaled 141,000[14,244]
  34.  Luxembourg
    Total war dead were 5,000 [2,107]which included military losses of about 3,000 included with German Armed Forces and 200 in Belgian Army. The genocide of Roma people was 200 persons.[13,183]Jewish Holocaust victims totaled 700.[14,244]
  35.  Malaysia
    Victims of forced labor and reprisals during the Japanese occupation.[9,296]
  36.  Malta
    Air attack victims.[16,491]. The BBC has an online report on the siege of Malta [73]
  37.  Mexico
    Mexico lost 7 merchant ships and 63 dead merchant mariners[16,540]A Mexican Air Force unit Escuadrón 201 served in the Pacific and suffered 1 non combat death.
  38.  Mongolia
    Military losses with USSR against Japan in the 1939 Battle of Khalkhin Gol (200) and 1945 Operation August Storm (72) campaigns.[3,74]
  39.  Netherlands
    Military and merchant marine deaths total 7,900. Civilian losses include 20,400 killed due to military action; 158,000 victims of Nazi reprisals and genocide; 16,000 deaths in the Dutch famine of 1944 .[2,109-111] Losses of about 10,000 in the German Armed Forces are not included in these figures.[6,230] Totals do not include 25,000 Dutch civilian deaths in the Dutch East Indies included with Indonesia.[4, Chap.3] The genocide of Roma people was 500 persons.[13,183]Jewish Holocaust victims totaled 106,000.[14,244]
  40.  Newfoundland
    Military losses with UK and Canadian forces. Source: Canadian War Museum.[74][75]Civilian dead included the sinking of the SS Caribou in October 1942.[76]. Military losses include 332 from the Newfoundland Merchant Navy [77]
  41.  New Zealand
    The military deaths listed here are those reported by the Commonwealth War Graves Commission[29]. Total deaths were 11,029 which included Army(7,595), Air Force(3,787), Navy(539), Merchant Navy (7) and a civilian death(1). These losses include war related deaths during 1946-47(269)[22] Details can be found online at the New Zealand Armed Forces Memorial Project[78]The preliminary 1945 data for New Zealand losses was, killed 10,033, missing 2,129, wounded 19,314 and POW 8,453.[20]
  42.  Norway
    Military deaths were 2,000 regular forces and 1,000 resistance fighters. Civilian dead include 3,600 merchant marine. Total does not include 700 deaths with German Armed Forces.[2,112-113] The Norwegian Foreign Ministry reported that "10,262 Norwegians had been killed, including 3,670 seamen. The Germans had executed 366 and tortured 39 to death. Among political prisoners and members of the underground, 658 died at home and 1,433 abroad. About 6,000 Norwegians had served the German war cause, and 709 of them had fallen in battle.[79].Jewish Holocaust victims totaled 728.[14,244]
  43.  Philippines
    Military war dead include 7,000 in the Battle of the Philippines (1941-42), 8,000 anti-Japanese guerrillas and 42,000 (out of 98,000) POWs in Japanese captivity[16,566]. Civilian losses were victims of Japanese war crimes including the Manila massacre.[9,296]
  44.  Pacific Islands
    Victims of Japanese war crimes.[4,Chap 3]
  45.  Poland
    Tadeusz Piotrowski Professor of Sociology at the University of New Hampshire has provided a reassessment of Poland’s losses in World War Two. Polish war dead include 5,150,000 victims of Nazi crimes against ethnic Poles and the Holocaust, the treatment of Polish citizens by occupiers included 350,000 deaths during the Soviet occupation in 1940-41 and about 100,000 Poles killed in 1943-44 during the massacres of Poles in Volhynia by the Ukrainian Insurgent Army. Losses by ethnic group were 3,100,000 Jews; 2,000,000 ethnic Poles; 500,000 Ukrainians and Belarusians.[80](go to note on Polish Casualties).
    The official Polish government report prepared in 1947 listed 6,028,000 war deaths out of a population of 27,007,000 ethnic Poles and Jews; this report excluded ethnic Ukrainian and Belarusian losses. However historians in Poland now believe that Polish war losses were about 2 million ethnic Poles and 3 million Jews as a result of the war. This revision of estimated war losses was the topic of articles in the Polish academic journal Dzieje Najnowsze # 2-1994 by Czesław Łuczak and Krystyna Kersten.
    Another assessment Poles as Victims of the Nazi Era prepared by USHMM lists 1.8 to 1.9 million ethnic Polish dead in addition to 3 million Polish Jews [81]
    Losses by geographic area were 3.3 million in present day Poland and about 2.3 million in the Polish areas annexed by the Soviet Union-[82] The Polish contribution to World War II included forces fighting with the western allies and the U.S.S.R. after the Invasion of Poland in 1939. The Warsaw Uprising of 1944 cost the lives of 200,000 Poles including 150,000 civilians. Military losses were 66,300 in the 1939 Invasion of Poland, 10,000 in Polish Army units with western allies, 24,700 with the 1st Polish Army alongside the USSR and 60,000 Polish resistance movement fighters; POW deaths totaled 250,000; in Germany (120,000) and in the USSR (130,000).[3,49-50]The genocide of Roma people was 35,000 persons.[13,183]Jewish Holocaust victims totaled 3,000,000[14,244]
  46.  Portuguese Timor
    Officially neutral, East Timor was occupied by Japan during 1942-45. Allied commandos initiated a guerilla resistance campaign and most deaths were caused by Japanese reprisals against the civilian population.
  47.  Romania
    Military casualties with Axis were 72,291 killed, 242,425 wounded and 283,322 missing and POW (only about 80,000 survived Soviet captivity). Losses as USSR allies were 21,035 killed, 90,344 wounded and 58,443 missing[10,216-217] An estimated 15,000 POWs died in German captivity out of a total of 50,000.[3,51]Figures do not include an additional estimated 40,000 to 50,000 dead in Hungarian Army.[8,58-60] Civilian losses during Soviet occupation of Bessarabia and Bukovina in 1940-41 totaled 20,000[3,51].The Romanian Fascist genocide of Roma people was 36,000 persons.[13,184]Jewish Holocaust victims totaled 469,000 including 325,000 in the territories annexed by the USSR in 1940[83].[14,244]
  48.  Singapore
    Victims of Japanese war crimes including the Japanese Occupation of Singapore and the Sook Ching massacre[4,Chap 3]
  49.  South Africa
    The losses listed here are those reported by the Commonwealth War Graves Commission [29]. Total deaths were 11,902 which included Army (8,782), Air Force (2,706), Navy (349), Merchant Navy (0) and civilian deaths (65). These losses include war related deaths during 1946-47 (878)[22]The preliminary 1945 data for South African losses was killed 6,840, missing 1,841 wounded 14,363 and POW 14,589.[20]
  50.  Spain
    Military deaths were of volunteer soldiers from the all Spanish Blue Division serving alongside Germany Army in the U.S.S.R. The unit was withdrawn by Spain in 1943.[16,515]. R. J. Rummel estimates the deaths of 20,000 anti-Fascist Spanish refugees resident in France who were deported to Nazi camps, these deaths are included with French civilian casualties.[17, Table A]
  51.  Soviet Union
    The official total of military deaths is 8,668,400; including 6,330,000 killed in action/died of wounds and 556,000 dead from non-combat causes[7,85] plus an estimated 500,000 MIA and 1,283,000 POW dead out of 4,059,000 total POW[7,236]. However, the estimate by western historians of Soviet military POW deaths is about 3 million (out of 5.7 million total POWs)[84].[17, Table A] Richard Overy has noted that " The official figures themselves must be viewed critically, given the difficulty of knowing in the chaos of 1941 and 1942 exactly who had been killed , wounded or even conscripted".[21,XV] The official statistics do not include an additional estimated 1,500,000 conscripted reservists missing or killed, primarily in 1941, before being listed on active strength,150,000 militia and 250,000 Soviet partisan dead. [3, 20-21]Total Soviet population losses included approximately 13 million men aged 17 to 39.[11,78]
    Civilian losses presented here are for USSR in 1939 borders. Total deaths in the USSR exceeded the pre war level by 26,600,000 from 1941-45.[11,78], including 3,300,000 civilian dead in the territories annexed by the USSR in 1939-1940 [12,83-84][85] , in this schedule they are not included with USSR losses nor are the 215,000 Soviet war dead in the German armed forces.[7,278]-[24]. Civilian losses in territories annexed by USSR are included in totals of the Baltic states, Poland, Czechoslovakia and Romania. Civilian losses are poorly documented and may include victims of Soviet as well as Nazi repression. Contemporary Russian historians estimate 2.5 to 3.2 million civilian dead due to famine in Soviet territory not occupied by the Germans, these deaths are included in Soviet civilian losses.[12,158]
    A Russian historian Vadim Erlikman has detailed Soviet losses totaling 26.5 million war related deaths plus 1.7 million victims of Soviet repression. Military losses of 10.6 million include 7.6 million killed or missing in action and 2.6 million POW dead (out of 5.2 million total POWs), plus 400,000 paramilitary and Soviet partisan losses. Civilian deaths totaled 15.9 million which included 1.5 million from military actions; 7.1 million victims of Nazi genocide and reprisals; 1.8 million deported to Germany for forced labor; and 5.5 million famine and disease deaths (including 3.0 million in the territory not under German occupation). Additional famine deaths which totaled 1 million during 1946-47 are not included here. These losses are for the entire territory of the USSR including territories annexed in 1939-40[3,20-21]
    Total military and civilian losses of the individual Soviet republics were : Russia 13,950,000; Armenia 180,000; Azerbaijan 300,000; Belarus (1945 borders) 2,290,000; Georgia 300,000; Moldova 170,000; Ukraine (1945 borders) 6,850,000; Estonia 65,000; Latvia 250,000; Lithuania (1945 borders) 370,000; Kazakhstan 660,000; Kyrgyzstan 120,00; Tajikistan 120,000; Turkmenistan 100,000; Uzbekistan 550,000. [3,23-34]
    The genocide of Roma people was 30,000 persons.[13,184]Jewish Holocaust victims totaled 1,000,000.[14,244]
  52.  Sweden
    During the Winter war of 1939-40 the Swedish Volunteer Corps served alongside the Finns and lost 28 men in combat. About 300 Swedish volunteers served in the German Wehrmacht and 30-45 were killed in action. [86]
  53.  Switzerland
    The Americans accidentally bombed Switzerland during the war causing civilian casualties. [87]-[88]Losses of about 300 Swiss in the German Armed Forces are included with German casualties.[6,230]
  54.  Thailand
    Military deaths in French-Thai War 1940-41, the Japanese invasion, and Burma Campaign 1942-45. Civilian deaths caused by Allied bombing 1944-45. Military deaths consists of 143 officers, 474 non-commissioned officers, 4942 other ranks, and 88 field policemen. Royal Thai Armed Forces Education Department
  55.  United Kingdom and Colonies
    The losses listed here are those reported by the Commonwealth War Graves Commission.[29] Total deaths were 453,000 which included Army (210,191), Air Force (84,778), Navy (59,164), Merchant Navy (28,905), unidentified by branch of service (610), and civilian deaths (69,384). These losses include war related deaths during 1946-47.(16,628)[22] The losses of Newfoundland and Malta are included in these figures but are listed separately on this schedule.
    UK casualties include losses of the colonial forces which are the topic of the following BBC article- [89] The losses of colonial troops include 3,700 African war dead which are detailed by V. Erlikman.[3,83-99]. UK colonial forces included units from Africa, Malaya, Burma, Ceylon, TransJordan, Cyprus, Gibraltar, Malta and the Jewish Brigade
    The official UK report on war casualties of June 1946 provided a preliminary tally of war losses. This report listed the war deaths of 357,116; Navy (50,758); Army (144,079); Air Force (69,606); Women's Auxiliary Territorial Service (624); Merchant Navy (30,248); British Home Guard ( 1,206) and Civilians (60,595). The total still missing on 2/28/1946 was 6,244; Navy (340); Army (2,267); Air Force (3,089); Women's Auxiliary Territorial Service (18);Merchant Navy (530); British Home Guard ( 0 ) and Civilians (0).These figures included the losses of Newfoundland and Southern Rhodesia. There were an additional 31,271 military deaths due to "natural causes" which are not included in these figures. Deaths due to air and rocket attacks were 60,595 civilians and 1,206 British Home Guard. The deaths of civilians interned was unknown at that time.[19,7] The preliminary 1945 data for colonial forces was killed 6,877, missing 14,208, wounded 6,972 and POW 8,115.[20]
  56.  United States
    Source of military war dead is U.S.DOD data [90] Total losses include battle deaths of 292,131 and deaths due to non combat causes of 115,185. These losses include the United States Coast Guard, a branch of the Armed Forces in World War Two, which incurred losses of 574 battle deaths and 1,343 dead due to non combat causes. These losses were incurred during the period 12/1/41 until 12/31/46 including an additional 126 men in October 1941 when the USS Kearny and the USS Reuben James were attacked by U-Boats. The United States Army Air Forces losses, which are included in the Army total, were 49,112 deaths due to combat and 36,557 from non combat causes[16,584-591]. Details of United States Army Air Forces losses are listed online at[91].
    U.S. Combat Dead by Theater of war - Europe-Atlantic 182,070; Army ground forces 141,526; United States Army Air Forces 34,505 and Navy/Coast Guard 6,039; Asia-Pacific 106,207; Army ground forces 40,382; United States Army Air Forces 14,607; Navy/Coast Guard 31,485; Marine Corps 19,733. Unidentified Theatres- Army ground forces 3,854[16,584-591]. Included in combat deaths are 14,059 POWs, in Europe (1,124) and (12,935) in Asia[16,584-591]. A listing of individual U.S. Army deaths in World War Two can be found at the U.S. National Archives website [92].
    Civilian dead were 9,512 United States Merchant Marine personnel, details given at USMM website [93]; and 1,704 American civilians interned, by the Japanese(1,563) and in Europe (168), which are the subject of a U.S. Congressional Research Service report. [94]. During the Attack on Pearl Harbor 68 U.S. civilians were killed by friendly fire[16,552] and 6 U.S. civilians were killed in Oregon in 1945 by Japanese balloon bombs [16,580]
  57.  Yugoslavia
    The U.S. Bureau of the Census published a report in 1954, The Population of Yugoslavia, p.23, that concluded that war related deaths were 1,067,000. A recent study by Vladimir ŽerjavićYugoslavia manipulations with the number Second World War victims, - Zagreb: Croatian Information center,1993 ISBN 0-919817-32-7 [95] and [96]lists total war related deaths as 1,027,000 including 237,000 Yugoslav partisans, 209,000 Ustaše and 581,000 civilians. Losses of the Yugoslav Republics were Bosnia 316,000; Serbia 273,000; Croatia 271,000; Slovenia 33,000; Montenegro 27,000; Macedonia 17,000; and killed abroad 80,000. However, Vadim Erlikman a Russian historian has given a different breakdown of these losses. Military losses totaled 276,000; including 20,000 in the 1941 Balkans Campaign, 16,000 Ustaše military, 20,000 POWs and 220,000 Yugoslav partisans. Civilian deaths totaled 770,000; including 20,000 due to military operations, 680,000 victims of Ustaše, German, Italian , Hungarian and Bulgarian reprisals and genocide; 70,000 due to hunger and disease.[3,55-56]. An additional 350,000 deaths occurred from 1944-47 during the communist seizure of power after the war.[3,55-56] The genocide of Roma people was 40,000 persons.[13,183-184]Jewish Holocaust victims totaled 67,122.[14,244]

See also[edit]

Main articles[edit]

World War II
Participants Theatres Main events Specific articles

The Allies
Flag of the United Kingdom.svg United Kingdom
Flag of the Soviet Union.svg Soviet Union
US flag 48 stars.svg United States
Flag of the Republic of China.svg Republic of China
Flag of Poland.svg Poland
Flag of Free France 1940-1944.svg Free France
Flag of the Netherlands.svg Netherlands
Flag of Belgium.svg Belgium
Canadian Red Ensign 1921.svg Canada
Flag of Norway.svg Norway
Flag of Greece (1828-1978).svg Greece
Flag of SFR Yugoslavia.svg Yugoslavia
Flag of the Czech Republic.svg Czechoslovakia
Imperial-India-Blue-Ensign.svg India
Flag of Australia.svg Australia
Flag of El Salvador.svg El Salvador
Flag of New Zealand.svg New Zealand
Flag of South Africa 1928-1994.svg South Africa
20px Egypt
Flag of the Philippines.svg Philippines
Flag of Brazil.svg Brazil


The Axis
Flag of Germany 1933.svg Germany
Flag of Japan - variant.svg Japan
Kingdom of Italy Italy
Flag of Vichy France.gif Vichy France
Flag of Hungary 1940.svg Hungary
Flag of Bulgaria (1878-1944).svg Bulgaria
Flag of Romania.svg Romania
Flag of Finland.svg Finland
Flag of Croatia Ustasa.svg Croatia
Slovakia WW2 flag.svg Slovakia
Flag of Thailand.svg Thailand


in Europe
in Asia

Main theatres
Eastern Europe
Middle East
Asia and the Pacific

General timeline

Invasion of Poland
Winter War

Invasion of Denmark/Norway
Battle of France
Battle of Britain

Invasion of the Soviet Union
Battle of Moscow
Attack on Pearl Harbor

Battle of Midway
Battle of Stalingrad
Second Battle of El Alamein

Battle of Kursk
Guadalcanal campaign
Invasion of Italy

Battle of Normandy
Operation Bagration
Battle of Leyte Gulf

Battle of Okinawa
Battle of Berlin
End in Europe
Hiroshima and Nagasaki
Surrender of Japan


Home Front
Military engagements

Civilian impact and atrocities
Nanking Massacre
Siege of Leningrad
Dutch famine of 1944
Hiroshima and Nagasaki
Strategic bombings
Comfort women
Allied war crimes
German war crimes
Japanese war crimes

Expulsion of Germans
Cold War

See also

Category:World War II
Total war
WWII in contemporary culture
Military awards of World War II
Attacks on North America
Comparative military ranks of World War II

Other articles[edit]


  • 1. ^ Ellis, John. World War II - A statistical survey Facts on File 1993. ISBN 0-8160-2971-7.
  • 2. ^ Gregory, Frumkin. Population Changes in Europe Since 1939, Geneva 1951.
  • 3. ^ Vadim Erlikman. Poteri narodonaseleniia v XX veke : spravochnik. Moscow 2004. ISBN 5-93165-107-1
  • 4. ^ R. J. Rummel. Statistics of democide : Genocide and Mass Murder since 1900 Transaction 1998 ISBN 3-8258-4010-7
  • 5. ^ R. J. Rummel. China's Bloody Century . Transaction 1991 ISBN 0-88738-417-X
  • 6. ^ Rűdiger Overmans. Deutsche militärische Verluste im Zweiten Weltkrieg. Oldenbourg 2000. ISBN 3-486-56531-1
  • 7. ^ G. I. Krivosheev. Soviet Casualties and Combat Losses. Greenhill 1997 ISBN 1-85367-280-7
  • 8. ^ Támas Stark. Hungary's Human Losses in World War II. Uppsala Univ. 1995 ISBN 91-86624-21-0
  • 9. ^  John W. Dower War Without Mercy 1986 ISBN 0-394-75172-8
  • 10. ^ Mark Axworthy. Third Axis Fourth Ally. Arms and Armour 1995 ISBN 1-85409-267-7
  • 11. ^ Andreev, EM, et al, Naselenie Sovetskogo Soiuza, 1922-1991. Moscow, Nauka, 1993. ISBN 5-02-013479-1
  • 12. ^ Rossiiskaia Akademiia nauk. Liudskie poteri SSSR v period vtoroi mirovoi voiny:sbornik statei. Sankt-Peterburg 1995 ISBN 5-86789-023-6
  • 13. ^ Donald Kendrick, The Destiny of Europe's Gypsies. Basic Books 1972 ISBN 0-465-01611-1
  • 14. ^ Martin Gilbert. Atlas of the Holocaust 1988 ISBN 0-688-12364-3
  • 15. ^  Annual Changes in Population of Japan Proper 1 October 1920-1 October 1947, General Headquarters for the Allied Powers Economic and Scientific Section Research and Programs Division July 1948
  • 16. ^  Michael Clodfelter. Warfare and Armed Conflicts- A Statistical Reference to Casualty and Other Figures, 1500-2000. 2nd Ed. 2002 ISBN 0-7864-1204-6.
  • 17. ^ R. J. Rummel. Democide Nazi Genocide and Mass Murder. Transaction 1992 ISBN 1-56000-004-X
  • 18. ^ The UK Central Statistical Office Statistical Digest of the War HMSO 1951
  • 19. ^  Strength and Casualties of the Armed Forces and Auxiliary Services of the United Kingdom 1939-1945 HMSO 1946 Cmd.6832
  • 20. ^ The Times of London on November 30, 1945. The official losses of the Commonwealth and the Colonies were published here.
  • 21. ^  Richard Overy, Russia's War: A History of the Soviet Effort: 1941-1945, Penguin Books, 1998, ISBN 0-14-027169-4
  • 22. ^ Commonwealth War Graves Commission-Debt of Honour Register
  • 23. ^ Gerhard Reichling. Die deutschen Vertriebenen in Zahlen, Bonn 1995, ISBN 3-88557-046-7
  • 24. ^ Russian Volunteers in the German Wehrmacht in WWII-by Lt. Gen Wladyslaw Anders and Antonio Munoz
  • 25. ^ Das Deutsche Reich und der Zweite Weltkrieg, Bd. 9/1, ISBN 3-421-06236-6.
  • 26. ^ Hve margir Íslendingar dóu í seinni heimsstyrjöldinni?
  • 27. ^ The Challenge Of The Irish Volunteers of World War]
  • 28. ^  National Defence College (1994), Jatkosodan historia 6, Porvoo. ISBN 951-0-15332-X
  • 29. ^ Commonwealth War Graves Commission-Annual Report 2005-06. Section 6- Page 3. Available online at [97]
  • Source List and Detailed Death Tolls for the Twentieth Century Hemoclysm
  • R J Rummel's Statistics of Democide
  • World War II: Combatants and Casualties (1937 - 45)

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